SEO (Search Engine Optimization) is a vast topics to discuss. Doing an SEO of a website without enough knowledge may lead to site banned or blacklist of a website. There are two types of SEO, we can use i.e White Hat Technique and Black Hat Technique . Black Hat SEO Technique is an illegal way and actually provide short term gain to rankings and sometimes may make your site banned. Whereas White Hat Technique is an ethical way of doing SEO and a long term gain to rankings.
Basically SEO can be described as content , content and content. If you have good content in your site , you will be in good ranking one day :) But takes time. User short titles, use keywords and content of the site should be good, which will lead you to top results on google.
Ineffective site design may also block the Search engine spiders from crawling sites. Ineffective site design includes load of intensive graphics, use of frames or poorly designed frames, etc. So be careful on designs. Sites which load slow are generally not crawled by search engine spiders. So keep your website pages short.
Use the website development techniques which is SEO friendly. Main lead to a website is customers to your website so make a website Search engine friendly.